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Data Model

Description of CIDOC CRM properties in CIDOC CRM Guidelines v6.2.7.

Website: http://www.cidoc-crm.org/Version/version-6.2
PDF: http://www.cidoc-crm.org/sites/default/files/cidoc_crm_version_6.2.pdf

Main features:

  • Subclasses inherit all properties of the respective Superclasses.
  • If a Class is Domain/Range of a Property, then all its Subclasses are Domain/Range of that Property.
  • Some words are here in square brackets (ex. E7 Actor [E21 Person]): these refer to the actual subclass the property will be used with, as the theoretically correct superclass is not in use in the model (E7 Actor is not used in itself, only its subclasses E21 Person and E74 Group are).
  • Properties that are inherited by classes that are not included in the model are in brackets.

 

 

Properties

Property Domain Used domain Range Used range
P2 has type (is type of) E1 CRM Entity All entities E55 Type E55 Type
P4 has time-span (is time-span of) E2 Temporal Entity
 
E5 Event
E6 Destruction
E7Activity
E9 Move
E67 Birth
E12 Production
E65 Creation
E66 Formation
E68 Dissolution
E69 Death
E85 Joining
E86 Leaving
EC10 Marriage
E52 Time-Span
 
E52 Time-Span
 
P7 took place at (witnessed)
 
E5 Event E5 Event
E6 Destruction
E7 Activity
E67 Birth
E12 Production
E65 Creation
E66 Formation
E68 Dissolution
E69 Death
E85 Joining
E86 Leaving
EC10 Marriage
E53 Place

 


 
E53 Place
P9 consists of (forms part of) E5 Event E5 Event
E6 Destruction
E7 Activity
E67 Birth
E12 Production
E65 Creation
E66 Formation
E68 Dissolution
E69 Death
E85 Joining
E86 Leaving
EC10 Marriage
E5 Event E5 Event
E6 Destruction
E7 Activity
E67 Birth
E12 Production
E65 Creation
E66 Formation
E68 Dissolution
E69 Death
E85 Joining
E86 Leaving
EC10 Marriage
P11 had participant (participated in)
(+ P14.1 in the role of)
E5 Event E5 Event E39 Actor P21 Person
E74 Group
P12 occurred in the presence of (was present at) E5 Event E5 Event
E7Activity
E77 Persistent Item E21 Person
E74 Group
P13 destroyed (was destroyed by) E6 Destruction E6 Destruction E18 Physical Thing EC8 Manuscript
EC9 Print
P14 carried out by (performed)
(+ P14.1 in the role of)
E7 Activity E6 Destruction
E7 Activity
E12 Production
E65 Creation
E66 Formation
E68 Dissolution
E39 Actor E21 Person
E74 Group
 
P14.1 in the role of Actor E39 P21 Person
E74 Group
E55 Type E55 Type
P26 moved to (was destination of) E9 Move E9 Move E53 Place E53 Place
P27 moved from (was origin of) E9 Move E9 Move E53 Place E53 Place
P45 consists of (is incorporated in)

 
E18 Physical Thing
 
EC7 Source
EC8 Manuscript
EC9 Print
E57 Material
 
E57 Material
P48 has preferred identifier (is preferred identifier of) E1 CRM Entity
 
E21 Person
EC11 Melodic Scheme
EC4 Syllabic Scheme
EC5 Rhyme Scheme
EC6 Music
EC7 Source
EC8 Manuscript
EC9 Print
E42 Identifier E42 Identifier
P67 refers to (is referred to by) E89 Propositional Object E35 Title
EC1 Work
EC8 Manuscript
EC9 Print

 
E1 CRM Entity E5 Event
E6 Destruction
E9 Move
E12 Production
E21 Person
E35 Title
E41 Appellation
E52 Time-Span
E53 Place
E56 Language
E65 Creation
E66 Formation
E67 Birth
E68 Dissolution
E69 Death
E86 Leaving
E74 Group
E7 Activity
E85 Joining
EC1 Work
EC2 Genre
EC3 Formal Feature
EC6 Music
EC7 Source
EC8 Manuscript
EC9 Print
EC10 Marriage
P72 has language (is language of)
 
E33 Linguistic Object EC1 Work
E35 Title
E41 Appellation
E56 Language E56 Language
 
P78 is identified by (identifies) E52 Time-Span E52 Time-Span E41 Appellation E41 Appellation
P87 is identified by (identifies) E53 Place E53 Place E41 Appellation E41 Appellation
P89 falls within (contains) E53 Place E53 Place E53 Place E53 Place
P94 has created (was created by)
 
E65 Creation E65 Creation E28 Conceptual Object
 
EC1Work
EC6 Music
P95 has formed (was formed by) E66 Formation E66 Formation E74 Group E74 Group
P96 by mother (gave birth) E67 Birth E67 Birth E21 Person E21 Person
P97 from father (was father for) E67 Birth E67 Birth E21 Person E21 Person
P98 brought into life (was born) E67 Birth E67 Birth E21 Person E21 Person
P99 dissolved (was dissolved by) E68 Dissolution E68 Dissolution E74 Group E74 Group
P100 was death of (died in) E69 Death E69 Death E21 Person E21 Person
P102 has title (is title of) E71 Human-Made Thing EC1 Work E35 Title E35 Title
P108 has produced (was produced by) E12 Production
 
E12 Production
 
E24 Physical Human-Made Thing
 
EC7 Source
EC8 Manuscript
EC9 Print
P128 carries (is carried by)
 
E18 Physical Thing
 
EC7 Source
EC8 Manuscript
EC9 Print
E90 Symbolic Thing
 
EC1 Work
EC6 Music
P131 is identified by (identifies)                          E39 Actor P21 Person
E74 Group
E41 Appellation E41 Appellation
P139 has alternative form (symmetric) E41 Appellation E41 Appellation E41 Appellation E41 Appellation
P143 joined (was joined by) E85 Joining E85 Joining E21 Person E21 Person
P144 joined with (gained member by) E85 Joining E85 Joining E74 Group E74 Group
P145 separated (left by) E86 Leaving E86 Leaving E21 Person E21 Person
P146 separated from (lost member by) E86 Leaving E86 Leaving E74 Group E74 Group

 


Additional properties

Property
 
Domain Range
PA1 has patron (is patron of) E21 Person E21 Person
PA2 has acquaintance (symmetric) E21 Person E21 Person
PA3 has friend (symmetric) E21 Person E21 Person
PA5 has lover (symmetric) E21 Person E21 Person
PA7 has sibling (symmetric) E21 Person E21 Person
PA8 has cousin (symmetric) E21 Person E21 Person
PA9 has aunt or uncle (has niece or nephew) E21 Person E21 Person
PA10 has grandchild (has grandparent) E21 Person E21 Person
PA11 has ancestor (has offspring) E21 Person E21 Person
PA14 has relative (symmetric) E21 Person E21 Person
PC1 has metrical affinities with (symmetric) EC1 Work EC1 Work
PC2 is contrafactum of (is model of) EC1 Work EC1 Work
PC3 has genre (is genre of) EC1 Work EC2 Genre
PC4 has formal feature (is formal feature of) EC1 Work EC3 Formal Feature
PC5 has expression (is expression of) EC1 Work EC1 Work
PC6 has alternative attribution (is alternative attribution of) E65 Creation E21 Person
PC7 has music (is music of) EC1 Work EC10 Music
PC8 has syllabic scheme (is syllabic scheme of) EC1 Work EC11 Syllabic Scheme
PC9 has rhyme scheme (is syllabic scheme of) EC1 Work EC12 Rhyme Scheme
PC10 has melodic scheme (is melodic scheme of) EC10 Music EC11 Melodic Scheme
PC11 has spouse (is spouse in) EC10 Marriage E21 Person
PC12 is intertextual source for (has intertextual source) EC1 Work EC1 Work
PC13 has response (is response to) EC1 Work EC1 Work
PC14 has indirect source (is indirect source of) EC1 Work EC1 Work

 

Classes

EMPLOYED CLASSES E1 CRM Entity
E2 - Temporal Entity
E3 - - Condition State
E4 - - Period
E5 - - - Event
E7 - - - - Activity
E9 - - - - - Move
E63 - - - - Beginning of Existence
E67 - - - - - Birth
E12 - - - - - Production
E65 - - - - - Creation
E66 - - - - - Formation
E64 - - - - End of Existence
E6 - - - - - Destruction
E68 - - - - - Dissolution
E69 - - - - - Death
E77 - Persistent Item
E70 - - Thing
E72 - - - Legal Object
E18 - - - - Physical Thing
E19 - - - - - Physical Object
E20 - - - - - - Biological Object
E21 - - - - - - - Person
E22 - - - - - - Human-Made Object
E24 - - - - - Physical Human-Made Thing
E22 - - - - - - Human-Made Object
EC7 - - - - - - - Source
EC8 - - - - - - - - Manuscript
EC9 - - - - - - - - Print
E90 - - - - Symbolic Object
EC2 - - - - - Genre
EC3 - - - - - Formal Feature
E73 - - - - - Information Object
EC6 - - - - - - Music
E33 - - - - - - Linguistic Object
EC1 - - - - - - - Work
E41 - - - - - Appellation
E42 - - - - - - Identifier
E35 - - - - - - Title
E55 - - - - -Type
E56 - - - - - - Language
E57 - - - - - - Material
E39  - - Actor
E74 - - - Group 
E21 - - - Person
E52 - Time span
E53 - Place
E59 Primitive Value
  
 

EMPLOYED CIDOC CRM ENTITIES

E5 Event  
Subclass of: E4 Period
Superclass of: E7 Activity E63 Beginning of Existence E64 End of Existence
Scope note: This class comprises distinct, delimited and coherent processes and interactions of a material nature, in cultural, social or physical systems, involving and affecting instances of E77 Persistent Item in a way characteristic of the kind of process. Typical examples are meetings, births, deaths, actions of decision taking, making or inventing things, but also more complex and extended ones such as conferences, elections, building of a castle, or battles. While the continuous growth of a tree lacks the limits characteristic of an event, its germination from a seed does qualify as an event. Similarly the blowing of the wind lacks the distinctness and limits of an event, but a hurricane, flood or earthquake would qualify as an event. Mental processes are considered as events, in cases where they are connected with the material externalization of their results; for example the creation of a poem, a performance or a change of intention that becomes obvious from subsequent actions or declarations. The effects of an instance of E5 Event may not lead to relevant permanent changes of properties or relations of the items involved in it, for example an unrecorded performances. Of course, in order to be documented, some kind of evidence for an event must exist, be it witnesses, traces or products of the event. While instances of E4 Period always require some form of coherence between its constituent phenomena, in addition, the essential constituents of instances of E5 Event should contribute to an overall effect; for example the statements made during a meeting and the listening of the audience. Viewed at a coarse level of detail, an instance of E5 Event may appear as if it had an ‘instantaneous’ overall effect, but any process or interaction of material nature in reality have an extent in time and space. At a fine level, instances of E5 Event may be analyzed into component phenomena and phases within a space and timeframe, and as such can be seen as a period, regardless of the size of the phenomena. The reverse is not necessarily the case: not all instances of E4 Period give rise to a noteworthy overall effect and are thus not instances of E5 Event.
Examples:

- the birth of Cleopatra (E67) (Pomeroy, 1984)

- the destruction of Herculaneum by volcanic eruption in 79 AD (E6) (Camardo, 2013)

- World War II (E7) (Barber, 1994)

- my birthday celebration 28-6-1995 (E7)

- the falling of a tile from my roof last Sunday

- the CIDOC Conference 2003 (E7)

In First Order Logic: E5(x) E4(x)
Properties: P11 had participant (participated in): E39 Actor P12 occurred in the presence of (was present at): E77 Persistent Item

 

E7 Activity

 

Subclass of:

E5 Event

Superclass of:

E8 Acquisition

E9 Move

E10 Transfer of Custody

E11 Modification

E13 Attribute Assignment

E65 Creation

E66 Formation

E85 Joining

E86 Leaving

E87 Curation Activity

Scope note:

This class comprises actions intentionally carried out by instances of E39 Actor that result in changes of state in the cultural, social, or physical systems documented. This notion includes complex, composite and long-lasting actions such as the building of a settlement or a war, as well as simple, short-lived actions such as the opening of a door.

Examples:

- the Battle of Stalingrad (Hoyt, 1993)

- the Yalta Conference (Harbutt, 2010)

- my birthday celebration 28-6-1995

- the writing of “Faust” by Goethe (E65) (Williams, 1987)

- the formation of the Bauhaus 1919 (E66) (Droste, 2006)

- calling the place identified by TGN ‘7017998’ ‘Quyunjig’ by the people of Iraq

- Kira Weber working in glass art from 1984 to 1993

- Kira Weber working in oil and pastel painting from 1993

In First Order Logic:

E7(x) E5(x)

Properties:  

P14 carried out by (performed): E39 Actor

(P14.1 in the role of: E55 Type)

P15 was influenced by (influenced): E1 CRM Entity

P16 used specific object (was used for): E70 Thing

(P16.1 mode of use: E55 Type)

P17 was motivated by (motivated): E1 CRM Entity

P19 was intended use of (was made for): E71 Human-Made Thing

(P19.1 mode of use: E55 Type)

P20 had specific purpose (was purpose of): E5 Event

P21 had general purpose (was purpose of): E55 Type

P32 used general technique (was technique of): E55 Type

P33 used specific technique (was used by): E29 Design or Procedure

P125 used object of type (was type of object used in): E55 Type P134 continued (was continued by): E7 Activity

 

E9 Move  
Subclass of: E7 Activity
Scope note: This class comprises changes of the physical location of the instances of E19 Physical Object. Note, that the class E9 Move inherits the property P7 took place at (witnessed): E53 Place. This property should be used to describe the trajectory or a larger area within which a move takes place, whereas the properties P26 moved to (was destination of), P27 moved from (was origin of) describe the start and end points only. Moves may also be documented to consist of other moves (via P9 consists of (forms part of)), in order to describe intermediate stages on a trajectory. In that case, start and end points of the partial moves should match appropriately between each other and with the overall event.
Examples

- the relocation of London Bridge from the UK to the USA. (Clarke, 1992)

- the movement of the exhibition “Treasures of Tut-Ankh-Amun” 1976-1979 (Treasures of Tutankhamun, exhibition catalogue, 1972).

In First Order Logic: E9(x) E7(x)
Properties: P25 moved (moved by): E19 Physical Object P26 moved to (was destination of): E53 Place P27 moved from (was origin of): E53 Place

 

E12 Production  
Subclass of: E11 Modification E63 Beginning of Existence
Scope note: This class comprises activities that are designed to, and succeed in, creating one or more new items. It specializes the notion of modification into production. The decision as to whether or not an object is regarded as new is context sensitive. Normally, items are considered “new” if there is no obvious overall similarity between them and the consumed items and material used in their production. In other cases, an item is considered “new” because it becomes relevant to documentation by a modification. For example, the scribbling of a name on a potsherd may make it a voting token. The original potsherd may not be worth documenting, in contrast to the inscribed one. Definition of the CIDOC Conceptual Reference Model version 6.2.7 10 This entity can be collective: the printing of a thousand books, for example, would normally be considered a single event.An event should also be documented using an instance of E81 Transformation if it results in the destruction of one or more objects and the simultaneous production of others using parts or material from the originals. In this case, the new items have separate identities and matter is preserved, but identity is not.
Examples:

- the first casting of the Little Mermaid from the harbour of Copenhagen (Dewey, 2003)

- Rembrandt’s creating of the seventh state of his etching “Woman sitting half dressed beside a stove”, 1658, identified by Bartsch Number 197 (E12,E65,E81) (Hind, 1923)

In First Order Logic: E12(x) E11(x) E12(x) E63(x)
Properties: P108 has produced (was produced by): E24 Physical Human-Made Thing P186 produced thing of product type (is produced by): E99 Product Type

 

E6 Destruction  
Subclass of: E64 End of Existence
Scope note: This class comprises events that destroy one or more instances of E18 Physical Thing such that they lose their identity as the subjects of documentation. Some destruction events are intentional, while others are independent of human activity. Intentional destruction may be documented by classifying the event as both an instance of E6 Destruction and of E7 Activity.The decision to document an object as destroyed, transformed or modified is context sensitive: 1. If the matter remaining from the destruction is not documented, the event is modelled solely as an instance of E6 Destruction. 2. An event should also be documented as an instance of E81 Transformation if it results in the destruction of one or more objects and the simultaneous production of others using parts or material from the original. In this case, the new items have separate identities. Matter is preserved, but identity is not. 3. When the initial identity of the changed instance of E18 Physical Thing is preserved, the event should be documented as an instance of E11 Modification.
Examples:

- the destruction of Herculaneum by volcanic eruption in 79 AD (Camardo, 2013)- the destruction of Nineveh (E6, E7) (George, 2000)      

- the breaking of a champagne glass yesterday by my dog

In First Order Logic: E6(x) E64(x)
Properties: P13 destroyed (was destroyed by): E18 Physical Thing

 

E21 Person
Subclass of: E20 Biological Object E39 Actor
Superclass of:  
Scope note: This class comprises real persons who live or are assumed to have lived. Legendary figures that may have existed, such as Ulysses and King Arthur, fall into this class if the documentation refers to them as historical figures. In cases where doubt exists as to whether several persons are in fact identical, multiple instances can be created and linked to indicate their relationship. The CIDOC CRM does not propose a specific form to support reasoning about possible identity. In a bibliographic context, a name presented following the conventions usually employed for personal names will be assumed to correspond to an actual real person (E21 Person), unless evidence is available to indicate that this is not the case. The fact that a persona may erroneously be classified as an instance of E21 Person does not imply that the concept comprises personae.
Examples:

Peirol

Dante Alighieri

Dario Fo

In first Order Logic:  
Properties:

P2 has type (is type of): E55 Type

P94 has created (was created by): E65 Creation

PA1 has patron (is patron of): E21 Person

 

E35 Title

Subclass of:

E33 Linguistic Object

E41 Appellation

Scope note:

This class comprises textual strings that within a cultural context can be clearly identified as titles due to their form. Being a subclass of E41 Appellation, E35 Title can only be used when such a string is actually used as a title of a work, such as a text, an artwork, or a piece of music. Titles are proper noun phrases or verbal phrases, and should not be confused with generic object names such as “chair”, “painting” or “book”the latter are common nouns that stand for instances of E55 Type). Titles may be assigned by the creator of the work itself, or by a social group. This class also comprises the translations of titles that are used as surrogates for the original titles in different social contexts.

Examples:

“The Merchant of Venice” (McCullough, 2005)

“Mona Lisa” (Mohen, 2006)

“La Pie or The Magpie” (Bortolatto, 1981)

“Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds” (Lennon, 1967)

In First Order Logic:

E35(x) E33(x) E35(x) E41(x)

 

E41 Appellation

 

Subclass of:

E90 Symbolic Object

Superclass of:

E35 Title

 

E42 Identifier

Scope note:

This class comprises signs, either meaningful or not, or arrangements of signs following a specific syntax, that are used or can be used to refer to and identify a specific instance of some class or category withina certain context.Instances of E41 Appellation do not identify things by their meaning, even if they happen to have one,but instead by convention, tradition, or agreement. Instances of E41 Appellation are cultural constructs;as such, they have a context, a history, and a use in time and space by some group of users. A giveninstance of E41 Appellation can have alternative forms, i.e., other instances of E41 Appellation that arealways regarded as equivalent independent from the thing it denotes.Specific subclasses of E41 Appellation should be used when instances of E41 Appellation of acharacteristic form are used for particular objects. Instances of E49 Time Appellation, for example, which take the form of instances of E50 Date, can be easily recognised. Numerically expressed identifiers in continua are instances of E41 Appellation, such as Gregorian dates or spatial coordinates, even though their encoding may be similar to instances of E60 Number. Thus, the use of subclasses of E41 is not determined by the characteristics of the object the appellation refers to, e.g., a person or a place, but rather the form of the appellation itself shows it as a special type of appellation, such as an identifier. E41 Appellation should not be confused with the act of naming something. Cf. E15 Identifier Assignment

Examples:

- "Martin"

- "the Forth Bridge"

- "the Merchant of Venice" (E35) (McCullough, 2005)

- "Spigelia marilandica (L.) L." [not the species, just the name] (Hershberger, Jenkins and Robacker,

2015)

- "information science" [not the science itself, but the name through which we refer to it in an Englishspeaking context]

- “” [Chinese “an”, meaning “peace”]

- “6°5’29”N 45°12’13”W”

- “Black queen’s bishop 4” [chess coordinate]

- “1900”

- “4-4-1959”

- “19-MAR-1922”

- “19640604”

- “+41 22 418 5571”

- weasel@paveprime.com

- “Vienna”

- “CH-1211, Genève”

- “Aquae Sulis Minerva”

- “Bath”

- “Cambridge”

- “the Other Place”

- “the City”

- “1-29-3 Otsuka, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 121, Japan”

- “Rue David Dufour 5, CH-1211, Genève”

- “the entrance lobby to the Ripley Center”

- “the poop deck of H.M.S Victory”

- “the Venus de Milo’s left buttock”

- “left inner side of my box”

- “the entrance lobby to the Ripley Center”

- “the poop deck of H.M.S Victory”

- “the Venus de Milo’s left buttock”

- “left inner side of my box”

In First Order Logic:

E41(x) E90(x)

Properties:

P139 has alternative form: E41 Appellation (P139.1 has type: E55 Type)

 

E42 Identifier

Subclass of:

E41 Appellation

Scope note:

This class comprises strings or codes assigned to instances of E1 CRM Entity in order to identify them uniquely and permanently within the context of one or more organisations. Such codes are often known as inventory numbers, registration codes, etc. and are typically composed of alphanumeric sequences. The class E42 Identifier is not normally used for machine-generated identifiers used for automated processing unless these are also used by human agents.

Examples:

- “MM.GE.195”

- “13.45.1976”

- “OXCMS: 1997.4.1”

- ISSN “0041-5278”

- ISRC “FIFIN8900116”

- Shelf mark “Res 8 P 10”

- “Guillaume de Machaut (1300?-1377)” [a controlled personal name heading that follows the French rules] (Reaney, 1974)

In First Order Logic:

E42(x) E41(x)

 

E53 Place
Subclass of: E1 CRM Entity
Scope note: independent from temporal phenomena and matter. The instances of E53 Place are usually determined by reference to the position of “immobile” objects such as buildings, cities, mountains, rivers, or dedicated geodetic marks. A Place can be determined by combining a frame of reference and a location with respect to this frame. It is sometimes argued that instances of E53 Place are best identified by global coordinates or absolute reference systems. However, relative references are often more relevant in the context of cultural documentation and tend to be more precise. In particular, we are often interested in position in relation to large, mobile objects, such as ships. For example, the Place at which Nelson died is known with reference to a large mobile object – H.M.S Victory. A resolution of this Place in terms of absolute coordinates would require knowledge of the movements of the vessel and the precise time of death, either of which may be revised, and the result would lack historical and cultural relevance. Any object can serve as a frame of reference for an instance of E53 Place determination. The model foresees the notion of a "section" of an instance of E19 Physical Object as a valid E53 Place determination.
Examples: - the extent of the UK in the year 2003 - the position of the hallmark on the inside of my wedding ring Definition of the CIDOC Conceptual Reference Model version 6.2.7 26 - the place referred to in the phrase: “Fish collected at three miles north of the confluence of the Arve and the Rhone” - here -> <-
In First Order Logic: E53(x) E1(x)
Properties: P89 falls within (contains): E53 Place P168 place is defined by (defines place): E94 Space Primitive [WKT] P2 has type (is type of): E55 Type

 

E55 Type

 

Subclass of:

E28 Conceptual Object

Superclass of:

E56 Language

E57 Material

E58 Measurement Unit

Scope note:

This class comprises concepts denoted by terms from thesauri and controlled vocabularies used to characterize and classify instances of CIDOC CRM classes. Instances of E55 Type represent concepts in contrast to instances of E41 Appellation which are used to name instances of CIDOC CRM classes. E55 Type is the CIDOC CRM’s interface to domain specific ontologies and thesauri. These can be represented in the CIDOC CRM as subclasses of E55 Type, forming hierarchies of terms, i.e. instances of E55 Type linked via P127 has broader term (has narrower term): E55Type. Such hierarchies may be extended with additional properties.

Examples:

- weight, length, depth [types of E54]

- portrait, sketch, animation [types of E36]

- French, English, German [E56]

- excellent, good, poor [types of E3]

- Ford Model T, chop stick [types of E22]

- cave, doline, scratch [types of E26]

- poem, short story [types of E33]

- wedding, earthquake, skirmish [types of E5]

In First Order Logic:

E55(x) E28(x)

Properties:

P127 has broader term (has narrower term): E55 Type P150 defines typical parts of (define typical wholes for): E55 Type

 

E56 Language

 

Subclass of:

E55 Type

Scope note:

This class is a specialization of E55 Type and comprises the natural languages in the sense of concepts. This type is used categorically in the model without reference to instances of it, i.e. the Model does not foresee the description of instances of instances of E56 Language, e.g.: “instances of Mandarin Chinese”. It is recommended that internationally or nationally agreed codes and terminology are used to denote instances of E56 Language, such as those defined in ISO 639:1988.

Examples:

el [Greek] (Palmer, 1980)

en [English] (Wilson, 1983)

eo [Esperanto] (Nuessel, 2000)

es [Spanish] (Pineda, 1993)

fr [French] (Rickard, 1974)

In First Order Logic:

E56(x) E55(x)

 

E57 Material

 

Subclass of:

E55 Type

Scope note:

This class is a specialization of E55 Type and comprises the concepts of materials. Instances of E57 Material may denote properties of matter before its use, during its use, and as incorporated in an object, such as ultramarine powder, tempera paste, reinforced concrete. Discrete pieces of raw-materials kept in museums, such as bricks, sheets of fabric, pieces of metal, should be modelled individually in the same way as other objects. Discrete used or processed pieces, such as the stones from Nefer Titi's temple, should be modelled as parts (cf. P46 is composed of (forms part of): E18 Physical Thing). This type is used categorically in the model without reference to instances of it, i.e. the Model does not foresee the description of instances of instances of E57 Material, e.g.: “instances of gold”. It is recommended that internationally or nationally agreed codes and terminology are used.

Examples:

Brick (Gurcke, 1987)

Gold (Watson, 1990)

Aluminium (Norman, 1986)

Polycarbonate (Mhaske, 2011)

Resin (Barton, 1992)

In First Order Logic:

E57(x) E55(x)

 

E65 Creation  
Subclass of: E7 Activity E63 Beginning of Existence
Superclass of: E83 Type Creation
Scope note: This class comprises events that result in the creation of conceptual items or immaterial products, such as legends, poems, texts, music, images, movies, laws, types etc.
Examples: the framing of the U.S. Constitution (Farrand, 1913) the drafting of U.N. resolution 1441 (United Nations Security Council, 2002)
In First Order Logic: E65(x) E7(x) E65(x) E63(x)
Properties: [P7 took place at (witnessed): E53 Place] P14 carried out by (performed): E39 Actor [EC21 Person] P14.1 in the role of: E55 Type P94 has created (was created by): E28 Conceptual Object [EC1 Literary work]6

 

E66 Formation

Subclass of:

E7 Activity

E63 Beginning of Existence

Scope note:

This class comprises events that result in the formation of a formal or informal E74 Group of people, such as a club, society, association, corporation or nation. E66 Formation does not include the arbitrary aggregation of people who do not act as a collective. The formation of an instance of E74 Group does not require that the group is populated with members at the time of formation. In order to express the joining of members at the time of formation, the respective activity should be simultaneously an instance of both E66 Formation and E85 Joining.

Examples:

the formation of the CIDOC CRM Special Interest Group

the formation of the Soviet Union (Pipes, 1964)

the conspiring of the murderers of Caesar (Irwin, 1935)

In First Order Logic:

E66(x) E7(x)

E66(x) E63(x)

Properties:

P95 has formed (was formed by): E74 Group P151 was formed from: E74 Group

 

E67 Birth
Subclass of: E63 Beginning of Existence
Scope note: This class comprises the births of human beings. E67 Birth is a biological event focussing on the context of people coming into life. (E63 Beginning of Existence comprises the coming into life of any living beings). Twins, triplets etc. are brought into life by the same instance of E67 Birth. The introduction of E67 Birth as a documentation element allows the description of a range of family relationships in a simple model.
Examples: the birth of Alexander the Great (Stoneman, 2004)
In First Order Logic: E67(x) E63(x)
Properties: P96 by mother (gave birth): E21 Person P97 from father (was father for): E21 Person P98 brought into life (was born): E21 Person

 

E68 Dissolution

Subclass of:

E64 End of Existence

Scope note:

This class comprises the events that result in the formal or informal termination of an instance of E74 Group of people. If the dissolution was deliberate, the Dissolution event should also be instantiated as an instance of E7 Activity.

Examples:

- the fall of the Roman Empire (Whittington, 1964)

- the liquidation of Enron Corporation (Atlas, 2001)

In First Order Logic:

E68(x) E64(x)

Properties:

P99 dissolved (was dissolved by): E74 Group

 

E69 Death

Subclass of:

E64 End of Existence

Scope note:

This class comprises the deaths of human beings.

If a person is killed, the death should be documented as an instance of both E69 Death and E7 Activity.

The death or perishing of other living beings should be documented as instances of E64 End of Existence.

Examples:

- the murder of Julius Caesar (E69,E7) (Irwin, 1935)

- the death of Senator Paul Wellstone (Monast, 2003)

In First Order Logic:

E69(x) E64(x)

Properties:

P100 was death of (died in): E21 Person

 

E94 Space Primitive[1]

Subclass of:

E59 Primitive Value

Scope Note:

This class comprises instances of E59 Primitive Value for space that should be implemented with appropriate validation, precision and references to spatial coordinate systems to express geometries on or relative to earth, or any other stable constellations of matter, relevant to cultural and scientific documentation. An E94 Space Primitive defines an E53 Place in the sense of a declarative place as elaborated in CRMgeo (Doerr and Hiebel 2013), which means that the identity of the place is derived from its geometric definition. This declarative place allows for the application of all E53 Place properties to relate phenomenal places to their approximations expressed with geometries. Instances of E94 Space Primitive provide the ability to link CIDOC CRM encoded data to the kinds of geometries used in maps or Geoinformation systems. They may be used for visualization of the instances of E53 Place they define, in their geographic context and for computing topological relations between places based on these geometries. Note that it is possible for a place to be defined by phenomena causal to it, such as a settlement or a riverbed, or other forms of identification rather than by an instance of E94 Space Primitive. Any geometric approximation of such a place by an instance of E94 Space Primitive constitutes an instance of E53 Place in its own right. E94 Space Primitive is not further elaborated upon within this model. Compatibility with OGC standards is considered good practice.

Examples:

- Coordinate Information in GML like <gml:Point gml:id="p21"

srsName="http://www.opengis.net/def/crs/EPSG/0/4326"> <gml:coordinates>45.67,

88.56</gml:coordinates> </gml:Point>

- Coordinate Information in lat, long 48,2 13,3

- Well Known Text like POLYGON ((30 10, 40 40, 20 40, 10 20, 30 10))

In First Order Logic:

 E94(x) E59(x)

Properties:  

  NEWLY INTRODUCED ENTITIES EC: Entities - Contrafacta

EC1 Work
Subclass of: E89 information Object
Superclass of:  
Scope note:  
Examples: